Architectural Changes in the Gill Morphology of the Freshwater Fish, Esomus danricus as Potential Biomarkers of Coper Toxicity Using Automated Video T
S.S. VUTUKURU, J. SMITHA PAULEENA, J. VENKATESWARA RAO, AND Y. ANJANEYULU
Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh, India
Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India
Centre for Atmospheric Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh, India
Biomarker responses at the histological level to xenobiotics are gaining a priority research interest. The 96h LC50 of copper sulfate to Esomus danricus is found to be 5.5 mg/L and its toxic effects on fish gills are critically examined in situ. Gills (pair III) of fish exposed to 5.5 mg/L and 0.55 mg/L of copper sulfate and control without toxicant were placed in normal saline medium and, after rinsing, placed on a glass slide and observed under a Polyvar, Reichert-Jung light microscope attached to Ethovision-version 2.3 (Noldus Information Technology, Netherlands) through a Sony CCD IRIS camera (Model No: SSC-M370CE). Damage to secondary gill lamellae with loss of shape, necrosis, clubbing and fusion, shaft breakage, atrophy, curvature of tips, thick mucous sheathing and degeneration of rakers are observed in fish exposed to 5.5 mg/L of copper sulfate. Primary and secondary gill lamellae are affected with loss of original shape, loss of alignment in rakers with hyper secretion of mucous in fish exposed to 0.55 mg/L of copper sulfate. Architectural changes in gill morphology can be potentially employed as biomarkers for rapid assessment of metals received through fresh waters.
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